21A X-ray Nanodiffraction


FORMOSA Endstation

    The end station of XND beamline called FORMOSA means “FOcus x-Ray for MicrO-Structure Analysis”. FORMOSA provided scanning type nano-focusing Laue diffraction technique combined with nano-XRF, nano-XEOL, nano-XAS and some complementary analysis tools other than x-rays to diverse research fields for better understanding of the crystal phases, orientations and strain/stress distribution together with their optical, electrical, mechanical and surface properties.
Fig.1: The overview of FORMOSA end station.    
    The synchrotron white/mono X-rays come from right-hand-side, through a set of UHV slit to define the incident beam and XBPM (white beam type RIGI sensor) to monitor the beam stability included position and intensity. After that, the X-ray beam was been focused down to ~90 nm for both vertical and horizontal direction by using a set of vertical-focusing-mirror (VFM) and horizontal-focusing-mirror (HFM) inside the K-B box. This K-B box was hermetically sealed by a special coating beryllium windows at downstrem to keep the UHV vacuum condition of mirrors and enable the experimental can be operated in both vacuum/ambient conditions.
Fig. 2: The design details of FORMOSA core-area.
Fig. 3: The photography of FORMOSA end-station.
Fig.4: Technical Summary of FORMOSA
Fig.5: Currently beam size of FORMOSA end-station

Sample Environments

  • Ambient (controlled gas)
  • Vacuum (down to 1x10-7 torr)

SmarPod Stage

    The lower part of stage system is a special design stage called "SmarPod". The maximum loading capacity of SmarPod is around 2,000 g (without 17D manipulator installed on upper part). The SmarPod can provided a mounting platform with screw holes to fix different sample stage bring by users. SmarPod also can provided 6-degree of freedom (x, y, z, pitch, roll, yaw) which act as aligner and scanner to scan the interesting objectives across the X-ray beam.


FORMOSA end-station equipped with four scanning probe stages, one of them was dedicated for differential aperture X-rray microscopy (DAXM) and others 

Silicon Drift Detector on 1D-manipulator

    The silicon drift detectors in FORMOSA were mounted on 1D manipulator which can change the distance between sample and detector sensor. This will help users to find the optimal position for highest signal collection efficiency. Furthermore, there are two SDDs in FORMOSA with different orientation directions to collect the x-ray fluorescence from surface or bulk.

Computer System

XND equipped with high performance computing cluster and high capacity storage system for users to collect, analize and store their experimental data.

Find a Beamline

21A Home




BL Schedule

Optical Layout



User Activities

Beamline Information

2018 XMAS Workshop

2017 XMAS Workshop




Ext. 2211

BL Spokesperson

—Ching-Yu Chiang (蔣慶有)
Ext. 2211

BL Local Contact/Manager

—Chia-Hsien Lin (林家賢)
Ext. 2211


  • 2D/3D X-ray Laue diffraction
  • Nano X-ray fluorescence
  • Qudraprobe; SEM; SPM
  • Nano X-ray absorption fine structures (XAFS)
  • Nano X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL)
  • Nano projection X-ray microscopy (PXM)
  • Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
  • Cathode luminescence (CL)
  • Scanning Probe Microscopy


  • Materials science
  • Environment and energy related research
  • High pressure physics
  • Physics
  • Nanomaterials
  • Semiconductor devices
  • Energy materials
  • Geoscience
  • Nanotechnology
  • Condensed matter physics
  • Functional materials
  • Photovoltaic materials

General Information

  • Source: 21A
  • Energy Range: 5-30 keV (white-beam), 7-25 keV (mono-beam)
  • Focused Spot Size: 80 x 80 nm² (lateral); 40 nm (depth)
  • Status: operational

National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center

101 Hsin-Ann Road, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30076