Probing three-dimensional morphology features in terms of electron density distribution, SAXS is an ideal tool for studies of non-crystalline structures under rich environments. The flexible sample environment controls of SAXS allow studies of structural transitions of macromolecules in solution where all biological reactions occur. This is particular relevant to flexible protein systems of intrinsically disordered structures, accounting for at least 40% of the proteome. In combination with in situ sample stimulation for time-resolved measurements, SAXS can also reveal important biological processes involved large conformational changes that are technically challenging for conventional tools; SAXS is hence highly complementary to the X-ray crystallography and NMR, in the investigation of three-dimensional organization, assembly, and/or functioning of multiple-domain proteins and protein complexes.
The TPS 13 BioSAXS beamline provides opportunities for cutting-edge researches in biomacromolecular solution structures and their kinetics, such as proteins, ribosome, protein-protein, and protein-DNA complexes under in situ stimulations. Photonic and hierarchical structures in the length scales from atomic to micrometer length scales in nature and synthetic biology will also be in the probing scope of the beamline instrument.
(1) High flux mode for integrated measurements of SAXS/WAXS/UV-Vis-absorption/Refractive-index/Multi-angle-light-scattering (MALS) with an online high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) instrument, suitable for exploring biomacromolecular solution structures of a wide length scale and structural kinetics down to microsecond time scale.
(2) Ultra SAXS (USAXS) mode for resolving hierarchical structures of bio-machinery assembly up to a few mm length scale.
(3) Anomalous SAXS mode for metal or mineral distributions (including calcium) in bio organelle or drug carriers.
(4) Microbeam SAXS/WAXS mode for structural mapping of the textures or specific infected cells in natural/synthetic bio-tissues, organelles, or biomaterials.